Cervicalgia: Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the upper neck (cervical) region.

Causes: This can be caused by degeneration, traumatic events such as a car accident or sports injury or simply over time.

Symptoms: Aching or sharp pain when moving the neck or when remaining still.

Diagnosis: this is a general term for neck pain that can have multiple causes which can be best diagnosed by a doctor, who can perform multiple tests.

Treatment: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), lifestyle changes to prevent future reinjury, exercises to relax, stretch and strength muscles, physical modalities, hot and cold treatments.

Piriformis Syndrome: "a condition in which the piriformis muscle irritates the sciatic nerve, causing pain in the buttocks and referring pain along the sciatic nerve".

Causes: a tight piriformis muscle and tendon that then irritates and may even decrease blood flow to the nerve.

Symptoms: deep pain in the buttocks that can be made worse when sitting or climbing stairs and referred pain along the leg.

Diagnosis: telling a doctor your symptoms who can conduct various exams such as X-rays, MRI, and nerve conduction tests to rule out other diseases

Treatment: Piriformis stretches combined with physical therapy modalities. If they are not effective enough, corticosteroid shot can be administered.

Vertebral Compression Fracture: occurs when the bones of the spine become broken due to trauma.

Causes: osteoporosis, trauma, fracture due to a preexisting disease such as infection or cancer.

Symptoms: pain in the back, numbness, tingling, weakness, losing control of urination

Diagnosis: X-rays, CT scans to diagnose a fracture and sometimes MRI

Treatment: Surgery could be required, rest, ice, back brace, pain medication,stretching/strengthening exercises with physical therapy when allowed.

Disc Replacement: a device that is implanted into the spine to imitate the functions of a normal disc. Restores height in between vertebral bodies so motion true motion can remain in tact.

Causes: lower back pain produced by injury to degeneration

Symptoms: severe pain that cannot be reduced with medication, injections or physical therapy.

Diagnosis: MRI and discography will help identify the disc that needs to be replaced.

Treatment: type of disc replacement will be assessed depending on the patient's symptoms, condition, etc. Proper motion after surgery will be explained, including physical therapy exercises.

Tension Headaches: Muscle contraction headaches that occur daily or chronically and and are non-progressive.

Causes: tense muscles in the neck and back, environmental or internal stress, increased nervous system sensitivity Symptoms: constant, band-like pain or pressure that lasts various amounts of time but does not pulse, fatigue, irritability, no nausea, mild sensitivity to the light. Diagnosis: neurological tests, CT scan, MRI, and metabolic tests can help figure out the cause. Treatment: pain relievers, stress management

Thoracic Outlet syndrome: a condition due to compromise of blood vessels or nerve fibers between the armpit and base of the neck.

Causes: compression of nerve or blood vessels between the neck and shoulders. This can be causes by overuse, injury, malformation or tumors in the top portion of the lung.

Symptoms: neck, shoulder or armpit pain, arm weakness, numbness in the hands and fingers

Diagnosis: explaining your symptoms to a doctor and maneuvers of the arm and neck to create a "pinch" of the blood vessel so the pulse stops for a bit. Electrical tests, angiogram x-ray also can help diagnose the problem

Treatment: physical therapy and anti-inflammatory medication or surgery if needed.


Cervical sprain and strain Cervicalgia Cervical whiplash Cervical arthritis Cervical facet arthropathy Cervical herniated disc Cervical radiculopathy Cervical pinched nerve Cervical Radiculitis Upper quarter dysfunction


Thoracic sprain and strain Costo-vertebral syndrome Thoracic herniated disc Thoracic kyphosis Thoracic arthritis Sheurermans Disease Postural dysfunction Vertebral compression fracture Thoracic outlet syndrome


Lumbar sprain and strain Lowback pain Lumbago Bulging disc Lumbar-facet syndrome Lumbar stenosis Spondylolysis Lumbar radiculopathy Degenerative joint disease Sciatica Sacroiliac JT dysfunction Piriformis syndrome Herniated disc Annular tear of disc Lumbar osteoarthritis Spondylosis Spondylolithesis/pars fracture Lumbar radiculitis Degenerative disc disease Scoliosis

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